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Calcium carbonate (Ca CO3) rich ground water seeps in from the cave roof and percolates through the interior sediments, resulting in an alkaline environment with good preservation conditions.The excavated Middle Stone Age deposit in Blombos Cave consists of aeolian (wind-borne) dune sand, blown in through the cave entrance, and roof spall from the cave ceiling.100,000 and 70,000 years Before Present (BP), and a Late Stone Age sequence dated at between 2000 and 300 years BP.

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Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.

The cave contains Middle Stone Age (MSA) deposits currently dated at between c.

The aim of TRACSYMBOLS project is to examine how key behavioural innovations emerged among Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis in southern Africa and Europe respectively, and to explore whether and how environmental variability influenced this development between 180,000 – 25,000 years ago; primarily by combining archaeological results, original multi‐proxy palaeoenvironmental data and climatic simulations for two continents.

The cave is situated in a south-facing cliff face 34.5 meter above sea level, ca. The cave formation is set in calcretes of the Wankoe Formation, and the geological setting indicates that the cave was formed by wave action sometime during the Plio-Pleistocene.

On Heritage Western Cape formally protected the site as a provincial heritage site.

at the University of Cambridge: Holocene archaeology of the coastal Garcia State Forest, southern Cape, South Africa.

The TRACSYMBOLS project is led by Professor Christopher S.

Henshilwood based at the Department of Archaeology, History, Cultural Studies and Religion at the University of Bergen and the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, together with Professor Francesco d’Errico from the University of Bordeaux 1, France.

The Blombos Cave project has since then developed academically, economically and administratively; from being a local and small-scale test excavation to becoming an international, full scale, high-technological archaeological project.

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